Is recovery driven by central or peripheral factors? A role for the brain in recovery following intermittent-sprint exercise.

Prolonged intermittent-sprint exercise (i.e., team sports) induce disturbances in skeletal muscle structure and function that are associated with reduced contractile function, a cascade of inflammatory responses, perceptual soreness, and a delayed return to optimal physical performance. In this context, recovery from exercise-induced fatigue is traditionally treated from a peripheral viewpoint, with the regeneration of muscle physiology and other peripheral factors the target of recovery strategies. The direction of this research narrative on post-exercise recovery differs to the increasing emphasis on the complex interaction between both central and peripheral factors regulating exercise intensity during exercise performance. Given the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in motor-unit recruitment during exercise, it too may have an integral role in post-exercise recovery. Indeed, this hypothesis is indirectly supported by an apparent disconnect in time-course changes in physiological and biochemical markers resultant from exercise and the ensuing recovery of exercise performance. Equally, improvements in perceptual recovery, even withstanding the physiological state of recovery, may interact with both feed-forward/feed-back mechanisms to influence subsequent efforts. Considering the research interest afforded to recovery methodologies designed to hasten the return of homeostasis within the muscle, the limited focus on contributors to post-exercise recovery from CNS origins is somewhat surprising. Based on this context, the current review aims to outline the potential contributions of the brain to performance recovery after strenuous exercise.

PubMed Link:


The Top 5 Ways Fascia Matters to Athletes

The Top 5 Ways Fascia Matters to Athletes

You may be noticing the word “fascia” (aka connective tissue) is a hot topic right now in all body related fields. But before we get to why fascia matters to athletes, here is a brief primer about why it’s getting so much attention these days.

First, many think of fascia as a glorified body stocking – a seamless piece of tissue that Saran wraps you just underneath the skin. While this is true of the superficial fascia, it’s important to understand it is a richly multi-dimensional tissue that forms your internal soft tissue architecture.

From the superficial (“body stocking”) fascia, it dives deep and forms the pods (called fascicles) that actually create your musculature like a honeycomb from the inside out. Imagine what it looks like when you bite into a wedge of orange and then look at those individually wrapped pods of juice. We’re like that too! Fascia also connects muscle to bone (tendons are considered a part of the fascial system), and bone to bone (ligaments are also considered a part of the fascial system), slings your organ structures, cushions your vertebrae (yep, your discs are considered a part of this system, too), and wraps your bones.

So imagine for a moment you could remove every part of you that is not fascia. You would have a perfect 3D model of exactly what you look like. Not just in recognizable ways like your posture or facial features, but also the position of your liver, and the zig-zig your clavicle takes from that break you had as a kid, and how your colon wraps. To say it’s everywhere is far from over-stating things.

In fact, it turns out fascia’s everywhere-ness is one of the reasons it was overlooked for so long. Until recently it was viewed as the packing peanuts of soft tissue. Therefore, in dissections for study and for research, most of it was cleanly scraped away and thrown in a bucket so the cadavers could be tidily made to resemble the anatomical texts from which people were studying. Poor, misunderstood, and underrated fascia. Sigh.

Fortunately research is catching up to what turns out to be a remarkably communicative sensory and proprioceptive tissue. What fascia researchers are discovering is pretty amazing not just for fascia nerds like me, but for anyone who wants to put their body to good, healthy use. (Like, for example, all of us at Breaking Muscle!) So without further ado, here is some of the newly emerging information about fascia and how you can use it to maximize not just your athletic performance, but also just your plain old ability to feel good in your body.

1. Fascia is a tensional fluid system.

While it’s difficult for us to understand how a support structure could be a fluid structure – because we’re not exactly making hi-rise buildings out of Jell-O – it’s true. Juicy fascia is happy fascia. The best analogy I can give is of a sponge. When a sponge dries out it becomes brittle and hard. It can easily be broken with only a little force because of how crispy it has become. However, when a sponge is wet and well hydrated it gets springy and resilient. You can crush it into a little ball and it bounces back. You can wring it and twist it, but it is difficult to break.

Once we understand that we’re like that on the inside, keeping our fascia hydrated takes on more importance. Our mobility, integrity, and resilience are determined in large part by how well hydrated our fascia is. In fact, what we call “stretching a muscle” is actually the fibers of the connective tissue (collagen) gliding along one another on the mucous-y proteins called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs for short). GAGs, depending on their chemistry, can glue layers together when water is absent, or allow them to skate and slide on one another when hydrated.1,2 This is one of the reasons most injuries are fascial. If we get “dried out” we are more brittle and are at much greater risk for erosion, a tear, or a rupture.

So drink more water, right? Well, yes and no. Staying hydrated via drinking continues to be important, but if you have dehydrated fascia it’s more like you have these little kinks in your “hoses” (microvacuoles), and so all that water you drink can’t actually reach the dehydrated tissue and gets urinated away, never having reached the crispy tissue. To be able to get the fluid to all of your important nooks and crannies you need to first get better irrigated (via the microvacuoles.3 And to do that, you’ve got to get work on your soft tissue to untangle those gluey bits.

Seeing a body worker who specializes in any form of myofascial work (Rolfing or other forms of Structural Integration and ART tend to be faves) will do the trick, but you can also work on this at home with the array of self-care tools for working your own fascia. As I pointed out in last month’s post, I don’t like harder tools as they are less effective at actually “unkinking your hoses”, and Yoga Tune Up Therapy Balls and The MELT Method are my two favorite self-fascia-lovin’ systems.

2. Variation matters.

Movement also gets the hydration out to the tissue as well, but that movement needs to be variedThis means variation not just of the movements themselves, but also variation of tempo. Not only does moving constantly in the same ways and in the same planes put you at further risk for joint erosion (a là osteoarthritis), but you are also dehydrating the fascia in a particular pattern, thus setting you up for that brittle tissue that injuries love so much.

As Tom Myers, fascial educator and creator of Anatomy Trains, says in this video:

“Rest is how the tissues rehydrate. When you do heavy exercise you are driving the water out of the tissue in the same way that if you step on a wet beach you push the water out of the sand, and when you pick up your foot the water seeps back into that sand. You’re doing the same thing with tissues, when you’re really working out you are driving the water out of the tissue while you are working…The rhythm [of your fitness regimen] should include some rest… When you take the strain off of the tissues, like a sponge they will suck up that water and be ready for more exercise.”

This certainly makes a good argument for functional fitness work like MovNat that takes its inspiration, wisely, from the constantly varying movements of our ancestors, and also shines a light on the benefits of a good high intensity interval training (HIIT) program.

3. It’s all connected.

Let’s say, for example, that you are in your kitchen and your leg is in your bedroom. This is an example of not being connected. You may also notice it’s an example of a potential plotline for Dexter. Something has gone horribly wrong in this scenario.

Okay, okay, so we were not dropped on our heads as children and we get it that our parts aren’t detachable. But the problem comes when we think of them as attachable.Because of the way we all learn and study anatomy – whether the extent of your studying was singing “the hip bone’s connected to the thigh bone!” song in preschool, or something more extensive – we conceive of human bodies as “attached” by magical soft tissue versions of tape.

In anatomy-speak we describe all muscles as having an origin and an insertion. So for example, the gastrocnemius muscle (our most superficial calf muscle) originates on the lateral and medial condyles of the femur (thigh) bone, and inserts on the calcaneus (heel bones), via the Achilles tendon. It makes it sound like it is taped or stapled to be “attached” at its origin and insertion points – like it’s this separate thing that gets stuck onto other separate things. A more clear and true to human anatomy description would be that the gastrocnemius becomesthe Achilles tendon (by weaving more densely until muscle becomes tendon) and that then becomes the calcaneus bone (by weaving more densely until tendon becomes bone).

I am not just trying to belabor anatomy semantics. This is important because it gives us a handier understanding of how you just plain can’t have something happen to one “part” of your body and not have it affect every other “part” of your body, albeit in varying degrees of intensity. Often in the fascia-geek worlds we’ll use the example of wearing a tightly knit sweater. If you tug on one end of that sweater, you see the tug travel long distance to other ends of the sweater. For athletes, this brings the dreaded domino effect into a clearer perspective.

Many of you have experienced the domino effect without having had a name for it. First, your neck gets injured in a minor whiplash in that teeny tiny no big deal car accident that you had when you were sixteen years old. But you’re sixteen years old, so no biggie. You ignore it and it gets better. But once you enter college, suddenly you have this nagging shoulder pain with all the extra typing and sitting you’re doing. As the years go by you start to think of yourself as the “tight-shouldered” person, and sometimes you have a pinching pain when you lift your arm. More years go by and you are now not only a “tight-shouldered person,” but you also suffer from occasional low back spasms and have developed plantar fasciitis, which you assume must be because you’re a runner and everyone says running is bad for you. I could go on, and this is just one quick sketch of one type of domino effect out of the infinite possibilities, but you get the idea.

The thing this person is experiencing is actually the long, slow drain of an unaddressed compensatory pattern on a body, but in our culture we call it, “just getting old.” The best way to avoid the domino effect is to keep your fascia healthy so that nothing gets jumbled up in the knit of the “sweater” and you are therefore at much lower risk for developing a compensatory pattern which, by its very nature, is always going to be global.

4. Its springiness wants to help you out.

What do you get when you add juiciness to connectedness? Springiness! When your tissue retains (or regains) its natural spring, the rebound effect of the fascia allows you to use less muscle power, and therefore fatigue less rapidly. Want to jump higher, run faster, and throw farther? You’ll need to pay attention to nourishing the elastic quality of your fascia.

For example, when you run with healthy fascia the force you transmit into the ground gets returned to you through the whole tensional network of the fascia. It’s like you have a little built-in trampoline action going on. So once you’ve done the work to rehydrate your tissue, you’ll want to embrace bouncy movements. Some good examples of how you can best play with this arerunning, jumping rope, box jumps, and kettlebells. All martial arts forms also rely on the inner spring. That’s why they’re so cool.

5. It is the largest and richest sensory organ of the body.

Now this little tidbit of recent fascial research was a shocker. It turns out fascia is one of our richest sensory organs with between six to ten times higher quantity of sensory nerve receptors than the muscles.4 In fact, it is possible fascia may be equal or superior to the retina, which has so far been considered the richest human sensory organ.5

This makes your fascia a system of proprioception – i.e. of knowing where your body is in space, but also of graceful full body orchestration of movement. Therefore, well-hydrated and supple fascia is crucial to maintaining your natural settings for alignment and function. And maintaining those natural settings will keep small problems from snowballing into larger ones, keep injuries from becoming chronic issues that flare in and out of life, and keep you mobile and functional for longer through life – as in moving well, but also the perks of that, some of which are avoiding nasty surgeries and joint replacements.

While it’s impossible to not be using at least some of the sensory qualities of fascia (unless you have a disease process that is interfering with it), a way to play with waking up the full potential of your own proprioception is to return, as I already covered, to constantly varied movements. To really Zen-out on noticing your proprioceptive abilities, a barefoot (or minimal footwear) hike over varying terrain mixed with balancing across logs along the way will certainly get the sensory juices flowing. Again, this makes MovNat a great choice.

Whew. And that’s just the tip of the iceberg. But it’s plenty to chew on for now! So go forth, love your fascia, and train happily.

Myofascial rolling shown to increase flexibility without inhibiting performance

Myofascial rolling shown to increase flexibility without inhibiting performance

August 18, 2013 — Two recent studies out of Memorial University of Newfoundland (St. John’s, Canada) support the effectiveness of myofascial rolling. The studies1,2concluded that as little as two minutes of myofascial rolling with foam rollers and a mere five seconds of rolling with a roller massager significantly increased range of motion (ROM) without any significant detrimental effect on muscle strength.

“Decline in muscle strength has been associated with static stretching, which is often used for increasing flexibility and ROM prior to activity. This association discourages some athletes from stretching immediately before an event, which may increase their risk of injury,” stated David G. Behm, PhD, associate dean for graduate studies and research, Memorial University. “Even though myofascial rolling has become popular because of its purported benefits in recovery after exercise, there was very little research on the effectiveness of the technique. Our first study, completed late last year, demonstrated the efficacy of myofascial rolling using foam rollers, and our second study, completed just last month, demonstrated its efficacy utilizing the Thera-Band Roller Massager+.”

Although used for many years in physical therapy, foam rollers have recently surged in popularity both in therapy and fitness for myofascial rolling. The rolling pressure applied along a muscle is thought to compress the tissue and increase flexibility of the muscle and fascia, possibly “breaking up” fibrous adhesions between layers of fascia. While myofascial release is usually performed by a therapist on a patient, “self-myofascial release” is widely performed using tools such as Thera-Band foam rollers and the Roller Massager+.

The first Memorial University study, conducted by Behm, Duane C. Button, PhD; and colleagues, found a significant (10° to 20°) increase in knee range of motion after rolling the quadriceps for only two minutes. In addition, the participants did not experience a decrease in knee strength or muscle activation with the increased range of motion, often seen immediately after static stretching. This study was published in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

In the second study, the Memorial University research team wanted to determine if similar results were possible using the Thera-Band Roller Massager+. All study participants were measured for hamstring flexibility (sit-and-reach test), maximal strength, and muscle activation before and after the intervention. The researchers reported a significant increase in hamstring flexibility (4.3 percent) after only five seconds of rolling. After 10 seconds, there was a 6.6 percent increase in flexibility, although not statistically greater than at ten seconds. There was no advantage to performing multiple sets of rolling. As expected, there were no changes in hamstring muscle performance after the rolling intervention.

“We are very pleased that our second study further substantiated the benefits of myofascial rolling and demonstrated the effectiveness of the Thera-Band Roller Massager+, an inexpensive and readily accessible tool,” stated Button, assistant professor, Memorial University. “With just seconds of use, the Roller Massager+ provided statistically significant increases in ROM without any significant effect on muscle strength. This should prove to be beneficial as part of an immediate warm-up prior to an athletic event.”

Watch the Dr. David Behm /Roller Massager+ study video here.

Manchester United’s Ryan Giggs and Rio Ferdinand buy into cutting-edge methods at Carrington

Manchester United’s Ryan Giggs and Rio Ferdinand buy into cutting-edge methods at Carrington

Manchester United’s attempt to reclaim the Premier League title is being bolstered by cutting-edge technology which includes GPS tracking of the players, zero-gravity rehabilitation and vitamin D beds.

Manchester United's Ryan Giggs and Rio Ferdinand buy into Carrington cutting-edge methods

Fitness first: Manchester United’s Ryan Giggs is a disciple of Carrington’s cutting-edge technology:

In a revelatory access-all-areas documentary by MUTV, the club’s in-house television channel, Ryan & Rio — Carrington Revealed, sheds light on the behind-the-scenes operation at Manchester United’s 108-acre Carrington training centre.

United are due to invest £11 million in a new sports science and medical facility at Carrington, which was opened in January 2000, later this year.

And with Sir Alex Ferguson’s squad given individual programmes and daily computerised data on their training performances, midfielder Ryan Giggs — who has confirmed his intention to sign a new one-year contract — admits that the attention to detail ensures that the players’ every move is now monitored and analysed.

“With all the stats that you get, you can’t hide,” Giggs said. “You can’t duck out of training or not work hard because it’s all monitored.

“We all have private programmes, so you get your clipboard and then monitor what you do every day. If you’re not working hard on a regular basis, you will get extra running or extra weights to make up for it.”

Worn in training vests, the GPS tracker enables United’s sports science researcher, Robin Thorpe, to give an individual rundown of each player’s performance stats following training at Carrington.

Giggs said: “We wear heart-rate monitors to test how hard we are working and also the GPS devices. The GPS goes in the back, with the heart-rate monitor underneath.

“They show us how far we have run in training, what the intensity was like, how quick we have been. You can go into the sports science department after training and you can find out your data more or less straightaway.

“In the morning, the sports scientists will tell us what we are doing. After a game, they will put up the running that we have done compared to the other team — the distance we have covered, intensity etc. It’s interesting.”

Inside the first-team dressing room, Ferguson’s squad utilise ice baths and the vitamin D bed — similar to a walk-in sunbed — almost daily.

Garry Armer, a United masseur, said: “The tubes have been altered slightly, so it is purely for vitamin D. The players, particularly the dark-skinned players, have a programme whereby they build up their vitamin D. The black players don’t tend to absorb vitamin D as much, so they go on this. They go in for four or five minutes after training, about three times a week.”

United’s scientific approach is not unique in the Premier League. Bolton Wanderers, under Sam Allardyce, regularly used deep-freeze refrigeration technology on their players, with eye coaches and Tai Chi also adopted at the Reebok.

Ferguson has often credited his former assistant, Carlos Queiroz, with introducing futuristic methods at United, however, and Giggs admits that the treatment of injured players, in particular, has moved on incredibly since his debut in 1991.

“When I started, you would get treatment, have a bit of ice and go home,” He said. “But now, you are working a couple of days after being injured.

“The gravity-free treadmill is great, especially if you have an ankle injury or something similar because you don’t apply downward pressure.

“You just jump on to it, fasten the zips around you and then get in. It’s like being on the Moon apparently — it’s running, but it makes you float.

“There is an underwater treadmill, where you can get your running action back quickly because, in the water, you can run as hard as you want. There are cameras underneath the pool which monitor your foot pattern, to make sure that you’re not limping. There’s no escape!”

Training preparation begins with a 15-minute bike session, followed by a stint on the ‘Get Back’ mat — a giant Twister mat — aimed at boosting movement and co-ordination.

“You stand in front of the TV and different circles light up,” Giggs said. “When they light up, you have to get on to them as quickly as you can.”

Giggs’s adoption of yoga as part of his fitness routine has been followed by team-mates Darren Fletcher and Rio Ferdinand, but the 37 year-old admits that relaxation is also a key aspect of the work done by United’s players at Carrington.

“The day after a game, it is all about relaxing,” He said. “We’ll go on the bikes for 15 minutes, have a stretch and then have a float in the deep-water pool, with maybe some weights.”

Computerised analysis of opponents, via the ProZone system, takes place in a room off limits to Ferguson’s squad, but Ferdinand insists that is the department which gives United the edge on the pitch.

“They’ve got square eyes in there,” Ferdinand said. “But it’s where all the magic happens.”


For full article click here WHOLE BODY CRYOTHERAPY (WBC) : PART 3

Summary of benefits
  1. Less muscle damage during training when WBC is used
  2. Greater tolerance to training over several days when WBC is used
  3. Greater anaerobic power and adaptation to training
  4. Improved testosterone levels in male athletes
  5. Better immune profile following WBC exposure
  6. Improved endorphin levels when WBC is used.
  7. Greater antioxidative status
  8. Enhanced mood and relaxation
  9. Better sleep quality
There is a growing body of research supporting the positive benefits of using WBC as a recovery strategy and as an adjunct to physical training for athletes from several sports. In addition, there is strong support from leading professional sport teams that WBC does indeed assist in providing superior gains during intensive physical training over and above that possible without the assistance of WBC. Several studies provide support for such benefits while pointing to the need for more detailed research.
The message is clear, athletes and players who use WBC as an adjunct to their training can expect to feel better and be able to recover faster from training. In addition the effectiveness of using WBC in between dense periods of competition may hold much value, however specific studies examining the effectiveness of WBC during such periods has yet to be undertaken. As is normal, we await well prosecuted research in examining the potential of WBC as an ergogenic aid, however, many professional teams are not waiting. They are taking the cold exposure regardless.

Thermotherapy Regeneration



Sport Team and Training Camp use
Without doubt the most experienced users of WBC from the western world include Rugby Union teams from Ireland, Wales and club teams from the English Premiership as well as the national Italian Rugby squad. Since 2001 players, in particular from Ireland and Wales Rugby, have been travelling to a training camp in Spala, Poland where WBC has been used as part of their programme to assist in recovery between the very demanding training units that they engage in during these ‘overreaching’ physical training camps (Hennessy et al 2005).
The key point here is that WBC is used as a micro recovery strategy within this very demanding training schedule. One leading rugby player recently commented that at the start of the very intense week’s training he thought: ‘’this couldn’t work’’. By the end of the training week which was very demanding (including 2 units of physical conditioning each day for 7 days) but included WBC he noted that you could not get through the volume of training completed without the use of WBC.
Indeed several other athletes and teams have since used training centres in Poland where WBC is available and in general all report very positive benefits (physical, psychological and team related) as a result of training at these special training centre which use cryotherapy as a key recovery modality between intense training units. Further, several sport teams are considering building their own WBC centres at their regular training bases .

‘’Wales will have a cryotherapy chamber built at their training base outside Cardiff in time for next year’s Six Nations Championship.

The players have been using cryotherapy in their training camps in Poland and the recovery technique has helped them become one of the fittest teams in world rugby. But from the start of next year the chambers – infamously unpleasant and unpopular with the players – will be permanently on hand at their training base.’’

In addition, several leading players and athletes have all used WBC as part of their programme in preparation for major competition with players from leading European soccer teams now using WBC as a standard recovery modality. Recently reports cite double Olympic Gold medal winner Mo Farah as one regular user of WBC in his programme ( For more on the team and athletes who use this modality please visit the following site:

How WBC is used.
Wearing only shorts, socks, body top (for females) gloves and an optional face mask the body is exposed to temperatures of less than -110o C for a period between 1.5 minutes and 3 minutes. The skin surface temperature can reduce to a temperature of about 5o C in this short period with core temperature remaining around its normal 36 – 37.2o C range (Papenfus 2006). Typically, the individual enters the small cabin like structure which can hold between 2 and 6 individuals (at any one occasion). The air is cooled by any one of the following methods:
  1. Liquid nitrogen
  2. Liquid air
  3. Cooled air
Following this WBC exposure the players then complete a short exercise routine which is intended to re-establish a normal physical condition.
What are the proposed benefits?
Papenfus (2006) lists the following benefits of WBC:
  • Pain relief
  • Inflammation reduction
  • Muscle strengthening
  • Muscle relaxation
Specifically Papenfus outlines the following benefits for the sportsperson as follows:
  • Greater muscular resistance to fatigue
  • Faster muscle recovery following exercise
  • Greater muscular performance
  • Conservation of energy for muscular efforts
  • Improved hormonal profile
  • Better psychological stability
  • Improved ability to recover from injuries
Is there evidence for such proposed benefits to the sportsperson?
Research into the effects of WBC and PBC is really in its infancy. At a 2006 British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine meeting, only limited research was presented to outline the possible benefits of WBC. Since the original WBC unit of Yamauchi in the late 1970’s however, research has been mainly in Eastern Europe and as such western scientists tend to be sceptical of the findings from case studies and note the lack of control groups as a major flaw in the research design. Nevertheless, several centres in Poland, Germany and now France in particular have completed interesting and well-designed research in the area.

Interestingly following a period of scepticism within the western world towards the purported benefits of WBC as described in the limited literature, there is now a greater acceptance of its potential and its benefits. For example, at a recent football symposium on Recovery, Christophe Hausswirth working at the national training centre (INSEP) in Paris, France highlighted the important role that WBC and PBC has on recovery and also highlighted the positive adaptations in well-trained athletes (Hausswirth 2013). This marks an interesting stage where over the intervening 7 years since the first pronouncements from BASES in 2006, much peer-reviewed research has now been completed using WBC and PBC.